Foreign Trade

Between 16th-18th century, foreign trade was almost entirely in the hands of foreigners in Istanbul and near-east by particularly the French, British, Dutch and Venetian traders were well known. Muslims were prevented settling in a foreign country or  going to neighboring countries as because of commercial purposes, non-Muslim minorities, especially the Greeks established  relationships  with the institutions and representatives of the Ottoman Empire with cities such as Venice, Livourne, St. Petersburg, Amsterdam [1].

As for European traders, they imported raw material, sheep, grain, Bursa’s silk, velvet from Ottoman empire . “Sof” type cloth trade was in the hands of the Armenians. Western buyers sold   gold and silver to ottoman empire for making their livings.

European traders had  a huge demand for some products from Ottoman Empire such as cotton and cotton yarn, but in meantime there was shortage of these products, so, Ottomans  banned the sale of substances such as tar grain, gunpowder, guns, horses, cotton, lead, wax, Morocco leather, tallow, Gon, leather, cotton yarn, sheep skins to  Europeans in  1590.  [2] At the same shortage of  gold and silver increased in Europe in XVI  [3].

In the second half of XVI.century, the Ottoman markets were found  attractive in terms of trade and actively participated around here by  UK, France and the Netherlands traders. Suleyman the Magnificent  gave many capitulations to France in 1535. In fact, the Ottoman-French capitulations began to commit in 1569 with an  agreement. These rights were given to Venice previously. A capitulation to England in 1580 granted important rights.  Cheap prices of good quality British wool was so vital to the Ottoman markets and  Ottoman Army, they sold the tin and steel. Venetian trade declined in 1630 and France trade fell by half. British consuls in Istanbul, Izmir, Aleppo, Alexandria settled down. As a result of traders of the western states gradually changed the character of the Ottoman economy. Ottoman land was an open market for European traders since the 1680s, Europe's cheap silver found huge place in Ottoman markets and has caused a price revolution. In this case, the Ottoman society and the economy has shaken the traditional institutions [4].

In 1604, the capitulations were given to France, and other European states  remained outside. France was importing  silk, medical equipment, spices, wool, wax, carpets, leather, raw cloth, cotton, mastic, grout, tile, coral and a variety of cereals from East. Wearing foreign cloth in the Ottoman Empire's disease, began with the death of Suleiman the Magnificent who banned silk, silver and gold embroidered fabrics, was introduced in the country. [5]

In XV.century, Jews immigrated from Ibero peninsula to the Ottoman Empire, to Cairo, Alexandria, Aleppo, Trablusgarb, Syria, Thessaloniki, Istanbul, seized the commercial places. Jews and Armenians took part. [6] of minorities who do not want to face competition from the French, in 21 th January 1687, banning Jews from receiving ships, they will release a commandment. Thus, the Europeans exploited capitulations, In XVII. And XVIII.centuries,  trade was spread throughout the East, according to each of its separate way, but for the same purpose [7]. British, goods brought from Aleppo, Khorasan Penbe yarn was  equivalent of turkish and 1.5 cent each Riyal  equivalent of 2.5 cents and a rub 'and Mazu was equivalent of a rub' and the pharmaceutical part of the penny would be taken three hundred cents [8]. Piers of the Ottoman Empire, and it will give the official greeting from the British ships of more than 300 reserve fund alınmayacaktı. The British, Beypazarı sof, mohair yarn buying, they want to take away after giving three percent tariffs "bac namiyle hurt exports," and they olunmayacaklar alınmayacaktı fund. British merchants, they buy silk in Bursa and Istanbul come from Georgia and another in Iran, where they sell silk Armenians in Izmir, "the Customs and Tax Trial Balance" which otherwise would not harm the treasury. [9]

XVII.yüzyılın in the second half, the French, Venetian, Polish and other state dealers, they can trade the Ottoman Ülkesi'nde comfortable, a lot of concessions given by the state to provide gain. And foreign traders in the port berths, they want their money to buy foreign parties could purchase ships. [10]

Outside France and the United Kingdom, other European states were provided with commercial interests. This is one of the states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, respectively. Austria the right to trade in peace tanındıysa Karlowitz 1699, an attempt been to Austria. July 21, 1718 Pasarofça additional trade agreement agreement, the Iran-Austria trade route, still managed to spend within the borders of the Ottoman Empire, the Russians are taking advantage of Iran's internal karışıklıklarından, silk crop pahalandırılmadan Russian-Iranian agreement dated March 21, 1735 sale Russia koydurmuşlardı. At the same time, this silk and Ejderhana referral by the Caspian and for making castles in the military had also obtained the right to possession. A Russian Chief Commissioner, Isfahan seats, silk or silk önleyecekti to go to other countries. In such cases, prevented the Izmir silk trade. But, London, XVIII. XIX.yüzyılda did not lose its importance as a port city and [11].

Austrian envoy to Belgrade with the agreement (1739) 11.maddesine, depending on the subject of the Ottoman Ülkesi'ndeki Austria reayası and merchant trade agreement on the further strengthening of trade issues decided.

Köprülü Fazil Ahmed Pasha, Grand Vizier during the Kingdom of the Ottoman Empire, has become a very important and busy trading port. Although 1688'deki earthquake, destroyed businesses and the silk trade of Izmir aksatmış Although the work at the end of Izmir, Izmir city exporting again the Middle-East as a silk center and left. Wool, mainly exported to the east of Istanbul, and the whole precursor. Great French traders, the normal years, Istanbul, Rhodes, Canakkale, Enez'den 1,500,000 worth of wool sent to Frank estimates and are appreciated [12].



Internal trade:



XVII.yüzyılda goods sold abroad, although it is more than the European industry is improved and because of the Ottoman possessions pahalılığından, Ottoman markets, more foreign goods began to flow. In particular, the cloth is exported goods necessary for the army and navy, but silk was taken on a very large number. Rami Grand Vizier Mehmed Pasha, once exported out of the cloth, instead of the fault and the other silk come from France because of Diba, California is about to go out, pointing ipeklisinin 1703, initiatives for the development of domestic goods were found.

XVIII.yüzyılda, Istanbul, Ankara, Bursa, Damascus, Hama, Sakız'da dokunmaktaydı fabric. However, Istanbul, Bursa, the opening of Thessaloniki Simkeşhane forbidden elsewhere. Istanbul, one of the cloth, the other has two factories were engaged in silk fabric. [13]

Izmir, a major trading center when XVIII.yüzyılda, many Europeans settled in Izmir. The Ottomans, on the Tabriz-Tokat-Izmir reliable way to have a caravanserai, merchants özendirdiler this way. The movement of traders engaged in public works to attract middle XVII.yüzyıl Izmir. Raw silk from Iran, Antalya, forest products, lint Ankara, Bursa, silk, cotton and woolen products are always of the Aegean Izmir caravans income, the imported goods sent to Iran. XVII. and XVIII. century, this rebellion has restricted trade. The state work safety measures, so the caravan Longfellow. Raw silk from Iran, Isfahan, generation, Qom, Tehran, Qazvin, Tabriz, Yerevan, Kars, Erzurum, Tokat, Ankara, Izmir, Afyon passing, six-month period from November to May-June reached. Ahead of other European ports than the port of Izmir XVIII.yüzyılda. Raw silk to Europe, London, lint, carpet, raisins, raw cotton, zinc, rice, figs, lumber, paint, oak, olive oil, such as the goods sold.
XVIII.yüzyılda, disappeared çiniciliği Iznik, Kutahya, to the needs of Istanbul and Anatolia was. Then, the decreased production here. 1795, Kütahya, tile workshop has dropped to 100. [14]

Kütahya was further weaving. There were many fabric market. Carpet production is also important. Venetian traders are buying the British and the carpet is known here. [15]

Gediz'deki alum mine, provided a need for the Central and Western Anatolia, all alum. Dyeing, foot and mouth disease, especially in dyeing wool is an essential raw maddeydi. XVIII.yüzyılda weaving industry in decline due to the branch to find the recipient of Gediz şaplarına güçleşmişti [16].


Transylvania, Romania as a country in eastern Europe, a wide variety of (Russian, Polish, Turkish, Hungarian, German) includes human communities.
Transylvania, Hungary and Galicia in a large plateau between the North-South line. Thanks to last the river Danube, where the commercial port where commercial activities have occurred and developed. Transylvania was the city of Braşov customs. The products are exported to and imported from Transylvania Transylvania was coming here. Through the Danube River in Transylvania reached thanks to the goods produced Lepzik'te Bukovine'den. In addition, France, Russia, Vienna, from the Mediterranean region in the goods came from Braşov'a. [17]

Sometimes very tight trade relations in the Balkans weakened socio-economic reasons, and sometimes increased. The importance of commercial relations in the past, could not be understood fully by the Ottoman government, but Omar Pasha, in 1852, had recognized that commercially important here. First, the assessment of the resources in the hands of Bosnia to the palace shortly after it made of silk, velvet, spun cotton, silk and cotton prints imported by the Rolling Sarajevo and Thessaloniki. However, a very rough area of ​​Croatia and the twisted blankets and carpets are produced were exported to other parts of the Balkans, and in the Dalmatian region of wool blankets, sheep skins, carpets, tobacco, wine, fruits gönderilmekteydi Turkish regions. All of these were imported and exported goods, customs duty of 3%, but, more recently, the products are exported to regions close to the Turkish customs duty was 10%. [18]
Map IX
Migration Route of Moldova Transvilvanya'ya for Passengers
(See MOGA, I, Revue de Transylvan'e Tome VI. No. 1, Cluj, Roumanie, 1940). L'orientation économique de la Transylvanie, p.74-79).



The Turks and the Hungarians (Magyars) historical relations between, V.yüzyıla goes up. Periods after the birth of Christ, like the Turks, Hungarians living in the tent of a nomadic life-style adopted perched. İ.S.8 century Kağanının Magyar'lar Caspian (representative of the Federation of Asian Turkish tribes) was a part of. Cultural influence, as well as ethnological structures of Hungarians contributed to the Turks. For example, 3 Habor length, joined Magyarların 7 lengthwise and then in bigger groups such as Cumans and brought Pechenegs. [19]

Knotted carpets are woven techniques, very well known among the Turks-nomadic Magyars affected by culture. In particular, after the conquest of the Carpathian plains (now the territory of Hungary), built in the West with his life etmeleriyle accepted, knotted carpets, began to decline. [20]

Turkish carpets, use of the Transylvanian region, 15th century since the end of starts, and the 18th century until the middle of resumes.

At first, in the Transylvanian region of carpet dealers carpet imports Moldavya'daki Valiçya and was in the hands of their privileges in 1456 and II.Mehmet aldırttı some decisions and that this superiority, the 18th century until the emergence of other commercial companies drove up. [21] These carpets are marketed the most important cities, "Kronstadt (Braşov) and Hermannstadt (Sibiu), respectively. Both have information about the city's customs records details of imported carpets. For example," Klausenburg "city of the Transylvanian prince customs records and accounting records from Istanbul list is available directly from the carpet. Eichorn A. According to these carpets was realized with the aim of being a gift to come here. North, Central Western Europe thanks to the transit trade, these carpets come directly, through Valiçya never taken place. [22 ]

Stored in the Topkapi Palace Museum, dated 1483 Corvinus'un King Matthias (1440-1490), Sultan Beyazit (1446-1512) and his peace treaty between the two countries set up trade relations.

Hans Dernschwamm (1494-1567) Fugger-Thurzo business-to-head with the leader of the Association, in Istanbul in connection with his reports on his visits (1553-1555), "The Ottoman Empire, Poland, and Hungary from the foreign traders Valiçya'dan easily enter the country to do business when they come out and imported goods, customs duties paid by the reports that the sultan. [23] This has the facilities to traders, import their carpets are very popular in Europe is quite possible. 17th century carpet in the information relating to the trading This commercial shows us how improved the channel. Archive records, carpet trade and the state of the kingdom as well as Hungary, Turkish, Greek and Jewish merchants made by the noted. [24]

Prince Gabor Bethlen on 1627 in a document submitted by each state to the "Turkish, Greek and Jewish merchants to be imported by the quantity of goods," he has a list. This list of 16 forint * How many books in a carpet, what is smaller than the "table cloth" to use as a 9 forint, while others further down the value on 8 forint'den; description is located. [25]

There were approximately 106 pieces of carpet and the type of prayer in churches in Brasov region of Transylvania, the oldest carpets in the "birds known as" white floor carpets. January 7 to November 6 for the year 1543 the city recorded 580 invoices showing the Anatolian carpet has been imported. [26]

At the same time, some carpets, Transilvanyalı by princes and nobles were taken directly from Turkey. The information in this regard is available in many accounting records Bethlen'in Prince Gabor.

"In 1622, at the end of August, Lord Paul Keresztesi, Constantinople was aşağıdakilerini.

6 Court (Iran) ** 11 blue carpet skarlat 135 thalers (Turkish) carpets, silk carpets, 238 of 12,100 asperos *** 2 old 2 larger than 340 thalers thalers 8 small silk carpet made of felt, 30 thalers downed 14,000 camels asperos 2

But a small percentage of carpets, Hungary has been through a gift. When we look at the account records of the King Sanos'un 1538; Legal Sülayman sent as a gift that many see the carpet.

"The same day, the Turkish ambassador, Mehmet brought .... ..... a small carpet on Thursday, the Turkish Ambassador Mehmet Segesvar the city (today," Sighioara ", Romania) has a small carpet Easter ...... 's two largest carpet Segesvar Following the prosecutor brought Brasso. [27]

City Attorney Hans and Hans Benknar Fux, 1508'de went to Prague and the most expensive carpets (How many books: float * 120) kings had a gift. There was a vase of a beautiful queen, made of gold. (Flot. 84)

German was spoken in a German colony in Siebenbürgen. In Budapest in 1507 with a orders (Ofen) governor sent a very valuable carpets. (Great carpet 40 float, float a small carpet 60) and a large carpet when you wear the crown of Young King Ludwig (100 float) has been sent. Ofen-end in 1522 the city sent a large carpet. [28]

Hungary as spoils of war we have no information about the carpets are not available.
The nobles and princes treasures carpets, some records that are clearly indicated:
Laszlo II (1440-57) treasury had a Turkish carpet, the carpet, but later went to Frederick III. [29] Prince Apafi Mihaly I, the log of the years 1667 to 1669 by his wife, on March 7, 1669 "Gyulafehervar" palace of the census, 78 carpets, 65 Turkish and 13 Iranian-made construction is indicated. Turkish carpets are associated with the list: "19 of them white, 15 dark red, the old and the new complex, 15 of them overall, 14 of them new, cherry red, 2 of them former; information is located.

17th century belonging to the documents, Persian rugs usually Carpets Court "or" Persian rugs "in the Turkish rugs, Turkish carpets," "Scarlet (dark red) carpet" or "Portrait" (door) are called carpets. Thus, dated October 24, 1670, Istvan Thököly records belonging to "large-format also known as 9 tracks sofa carpet Persian carpet, 26 tracks" Scarlet carpets, "also called the Turkish rugs, each of which ölçüsündedir table. [30]

17th century belonging to the data, begins to fill the carpet even find simple homes. "Dated 10 November 1637, the records of Mrs. Bertalan Majtenyi Thatos'a nee Erzsebet," two pieces of white skarlat (Turkish), rug, 2 red, 3, and one multi-color carpet worn. "Description is located. [31]

Dated December 2, 1622 by Janos Kemeny'e inventory, "l sofa carpet skarlat new carpet, ......." The information is located. [32]
Transylvania Romania joined in 1920 after the Hungarian was forced to sell carpets to sustain the functions of most churches. In the meantime, many other countries went to the carpet. [33]

19. and the 20th century's on-the Greek Orthodox churches in Romania's Transylvania was no oriental rug. [34]

In fact, many sources, not only the Protestant churches adorned with oriental carpets reported. Many archival records indicate that Oriental carpets outside of Transylvania. Roman-Catholic churches with which we find relevant data. States of Upper Hungary (Bars, Hont and Lipton ') Roman Catholic church records dated 1697: "Alsopalota'nın has a carpet," "Szentivan", "Cathedra" t have to decorate the carpet, "Sebelled" carpets available in two of them One Turkish carpet. [35]

Bars province, dated 1713 records: "Verebely" church 2 red Turkish carpet, "Ledec and Csata" a Turkish carpet, "Ecclesic Trubino" big altara a Turkish carpet to be put, "Leva" used in the steps of the Altar has a Turkish carpet. [36]
Miskolc, Avas Hill Reform church carpet was very well preserved 4. Among these, the 17th century by a 6-column Gordes carpets, palace shows the effect of weaving. Both at the beginning of the carpet is a post processed. (Turkish translation)
The carpet, made for God's holy table, was presented by the noble and honest merchants tailor. [37]

Black Church in Brasov (Black Church, the organization 1383) at 112 pieces of carpet were very well preserved, and the Protestants to worship on the Anatolian carpets sermişlerdir seated at desks. Churches, artisans and craftsmen, governors, traders had their own special seats, and these are adorned with special wooden carvings. This church burned in 1689 and all the die-cut, curly queues disappeared. Therefore, these places were oriental rugs. [38]

Some Protestant churches in the villages and towns of this type of wealthy individuals donattılar with carpets. The carpets, the walls of the church, pulpits, decorations removed as a result of the reform movement and vitality to an environment with the aim of using the different instead. Sometimes the altar, on the grave stone, and sometimes fell to cover the sarcophagus. Baptism is a time to not use the location of the first carpets with carpet on the kapıyorlardı But Transylvania usually used at the entrance of the church. [39]

Suleyman the Magnificent conquered the region of Transylvania, the military commander of the Kara Ahmet Pasha, the military glory of the show to the West, but also to show respect to the world of the Christian army, the Sultan on behalf of the Black Church altarına a carpet donated to sprawl. At that time, the sultan's gesture by patriarchs correspond to the churches of Romania and Hungary was given the order to be used in the carpet until 2000, and traders started importing rugs as soon as possible, this charming. Sometimes the very wealthy individuals, church carpet for too long dangerous journeys bağışlamışlardı returned unharmed. Aşınıp disappeared without trace over time due to use of carpets used in homes, but always strongly kiliselerdekiler very well preserved. [40]

Carpets in small towns in the churches of the Transylvanian region specified as follows (in Braşov 22 tracks), Reps (Rupea) 16 tracks, SchaBburg (Sighisoara) 38 tracks, Medisash 23 tracks, Muhlbach (sebaceous-Alba) 10 pieces, 32 pieces of carpet are the Museum of Sibiu Brukenthal , but the 57 tracks in 1940 Bistritz (Bistrita), also disappeared. [41]

According to Emil Schmutzler'e, when the Turks captured the region, Anatolia and many perched nomadic and settled groups of people migrated to this region. The Turks are Muslim, they went to churches to lend their prayers. Although the church, but not the right niche Kıble'ye, prayer rugs with type sağlamışlardı orientation, and presence of itself the cause of a large number of carpets in this type of prayer in churches that are connecting to reality.
Turkish Life in Hungary

In 1541, with falling capital city of the Buddha, the middle part of Hungary, for a period of 150 years has passed into the hands of the Turks.

In Hungary, a unique "Turkish settlement" has occurred. Borders placed on the edges of the soldier-farmer families, the country's security, while contributing to the economy of the country team had Reaping. But people living in cities, the situation was quite different. The Turks continued to yaşayışını Islam, the churches have turned into a mosque and carpets used their own places.

Vaclav at Uratislav Mitrovic, a young Czech nobleman during his journey in Istanbul, and from there the Buddha, the Buddha in relation to the memory of his visit Paşa'sına :....... entrance hall, although the room resembles a well, covered with ornate carpets, "mentions. This traveler had seen in the palace of the sultan. Received from notes," the Sultan's throne was covered with colorful carpets "are açıklamasıda. [42]

Kecskemet'te a carpet on the market in all kinds of commercial activities had. NagykÖros'ten arrivals in 1672, "St. George on the day," the fair and 8 8 forints denars'al bought two Turkish carpets. "The data show that the carpet trade carried out by Turkish and Jewish merchants. [43]

Sometimes carpets, used in an organic vehicle owners to pay taxes. Thus, in 1669: "Nagyszombat'ta rent, Your Highness, Lord Peter Baranyai'ye 100 gold piece and 4 were paid in the form of a large carpet." [44]

Archive records, we find much information about the use of carpets. 17th century records of the carpets in homes as a means of interior decoration in the hall, across the room in a large hall, smaller rooms, dining room, the bride-groom rooms, to hang on the wall and used to be placed somewhere. [45]

July 15, 1520 by Paul Tomary'ın pieces of carpet, there are annual log. [46] Gaspar Horvat'ın in 1579 there were 6 pieces of white carpet and Catherine Horvata same year, a few red carpet, including the inherited medium-size 4 white carpet. [47] in 1599, owner George Kiraly Csenger mansion, 2 red and 4 white carpet and a large red carpet, including their sarmalandığı carpet has a total of 16 reported. [48] ​​In 1607 a list of different sizes and colors of carpet 13, Stephen was malikesinde Totay'ın. [49]

Bodak'taki George Berenyi'in palace, 2 sofa rug, 5 Persian carpet, 14 small and 6 large new carpet, 2 large carpet, worn, l, and three short pieces, where the peasant rugs are listed. (1656) [50]

Although most of this information is given as a reference in the church and saraylardaki carpets, in countries such as Italy and the Netherlands say that there are tables to cover the many carpeting.

Paul Maghy'nın manor in 1529 to 4 carpet is designed to be used as table cloth. [51]
In 1609, Catherine Vekey'in dowry, "a red carpet to be put on the table" appears. In the meantime, Marothy Viczay families and records for the year 1610 "table cloth" have to be used as an additional 5 lists the carpet. [52]

Record of the history of George Thurzo'nun 1612, tables are listed for the various carpets series. Among them, "Kont'un round table had to cover a large carpet and hiding cellar to be used in special cases like that of four parts. [53], especially a red carpet, Kont'un inner chamber is used to cover both the table and other similar samples in storage noted stored. [54]

Documentation specified exactly what type of carpet is not indicated exactly. But it is the same types used in different purposes. Perhaps they are only to be put on tables as a special order made carpets. Most of these carpets rug merchants of Istanbul have been purchased, but they do not know the local area rugs woven in full all of these traders, "the Anatolian rug," they said.

They understood how the carpets of the Turkish capital of the letters of George Rakoczi. Letters to the carpet weaving centers, the number, size, Prices, and sometimes provides information about Transylvania, the lords of the Ottomans with different tastes. These letters can be seen clearly, these carpets are made by special order are given information about their own patterns.

These letters often contain information about the silk rugs. Stephen Rakoczi August 26, 1634 in the following lines in the letter gives:
Lord Martin Pap was in Istanbul .... The next day, he saw a Turkish merchant of silk carpets. Thallers each of the 150 best ones, and even less expensive ones, even down to 100 each thallers'ten can not be bought, 2 sofa carpet 300 thallers How many books, but have not seen them yet. [55]

In 1638, the Iranian silk carpets, by the representatives of the Prince of Transylvania, was in Istanbul, some important members of the Russian Consulate. [56]
Woolen carpets, prices were lower, and orders were given substantial amounts. Information is given in the following way Szalanczi Rakoczi'ye January 2, 1646.

Mr. ekselanslarımızın given orders to search up to 20 "Scarlet Red" carpet found. Very nice new types of carpets, Your Excellency has given each decide what each of which can not be bought down to 15 thallers'den. [57]
The same year, 12 in August, Stephen Rethy, gives information about the problems faced by Prince in the face of large order.

Dear Your Highness, the two times I went to Turks carpet merchant, such as carpets, but did not have the Michael Szava'nın. We agreed to do this, thallers'e 25. However, (Szava) gave only 24. Dimensions Turks abandoned estuary and their desire to be promised. But ....... 200 thallers until it does not want to do order. Because this is a person to make the carpet will have to send Karamana. Here, the Turks do not take this type of buying carpets (the trader) satamamaktan afraid of them later. So you want a deposit and does not want to sell the carpeting down each 30 and 28 thallers'e inebilmesi thallers'den showed for the very effort, but the sight of the money will agree with us. [58]

In another letter for the year 1640, Michael Maurer, speaks of the difficulties in Turkey, order take out carpet. "Dear Excellency, white carpeting and lockers am related to the orders given. For now, the carpet is very difficult to be finished within a year. " [59]

Sometimes, some information about the patterns rastlayabiliyoruz orders. [60]
Dated 1720, records of Bethlen'e Catharine, widow, Prince Michael Apathy, decorated with various patterns of 10 speaks of the Turkish carpet samples.
A document dated July 30, 1650 [61] "to cover up tables, two small red carpets column Scarlet" is mentioned. These are probably the type of prayer carpets have not been. Others are usually named according to the main color (usually white and red). At least some of these carpets were made by the other types of materials will be demonstrated. But to be able to identify precisely the information gathered by the poor.

Silk carpets, usually referred to as expensive and luxurious Persian carpets, when others think it is made of wool. [62] This is knotted or flat woven rugs that are very rare records.

17th century Hungarian funeral ceremonies and other eastern Turkish carpets depicting the best bilinenlerinin tables are laid down. (See statements of painters in the Transylvanian carpets) düğümlüdür majority of these parts. This kind of distinction between the plain-woven and knotted, perhaps it is more expensive than the previously relied on them. Thus, carpets, luxury was thought as a trade emtiası. However, the Istanbul rug merchants, B. Anatolia came from the trade of goods made largely or even the village brought the capital, even carpets. Perhaps, "the Court rugs called" carpet "Sublime Porte" (Great Door) were produced for the workshops in Istanbul. [63]
One of the pieces recovered from the Turks as a trophy, is still Badisches Landes museum, Karlsruhe [64] are exhibited. This piece is woven flat, nor what is knotted, colorful pieces of cloth made of a mosaic structure. Most probably, the British-based "Resht cloth known as" parts have the same technique. (Fig. -)

17. and the 18th century by Lara "Transylvanian rugs known as" examples of Turkish carpets, in terms of design styles, show great similarities with the example in Karlsruhe. Both surface schemes, as well as ground units located in the small resemblance to each other, they are influenced by the idea that each of these components reveals.

This type of mosaic structure çuhalar, Transylvania "kelevet" It is known under the name. Catherine Bethlen'in 18th century records for the first half of "A Turkish-made cover" kelevet ", an English paper with silk edges of the green" cloth "and is surrounded by the same color as the canvas, 136 gold florins How many books, the same source, also" 3 grain " more "kelevet" reported. They are getting down to the Turkish material is made using a variety of colors and flower compositions mentioned. [65]

For the year 1671, Szepesvar (Spissky Hrad) 's blog, "half-silk, known as" carpet 22 is defined. Yellow and red kamuka (cotton or wool material), plus 4 "semi-kamuka with silk flowers and red carpets," and l x "red carpet hair braided silk satin." These are also included in this group. [66]

Hedervary Catherine's estate, May 14, 1681 date of the inventory records, referred to a cover like that. "To be used as table cloths, flower units çuhadan is made, a dark green carpet. [67] Here, European, all kinds of textile," carpet "is using the phrase is often difficult to determine which belongs to which category.

Perhaps these films, using their own materials had been done by Europeans affected by the Anatolian carpets woven cloth type.

Kelevet carpets and rugs made of feathers next to some sources, especially the camel is possible to find information about. In some sources, they are made of wool with a variety of styles, colors and patterns noted. John Rimay'ın Istanbul between their "flowering of a long-felt" [68] can be found in the definition. Although Felt rugs, pillows, and made to use other types of seals, are still in various regions of Anatolia.


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Dr. Kamil Güller

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